The Tycho Brahe Corpus
Annotation System


Morphological Tags
(POS and Inflectional)


 

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VERBS

Two different groups of verbs were contemplated. On one hand, under the tag VB, are all verbs that, besides presenting verbal agreement and finite features, assign thematic roles to their arguments, being considered full verbs. On the other hand, separate tags were attributed to ser (be-individual level) (SR), estar (be-stage level) (ET), ter (have) (TR), and haver (there to be) (HV), whose features seem to oscillate diachronically so that sometimes they may be employed as full verbs, and sometimes function as mere auxiliary verbs which are restricted to carrying inflectional information. Associated to these main POS tags, inflectional tags, indicating visible verbal morphology, may be added to the primary tags.

Clitic forms CL and SE can also be added to all verbal forms, except participles (-AN or –PP) - see verb-clitic combinations; for future forms, see also mesoclisis.

As proposed below for pronouns, also verbs will be present person and number information as soon as possible.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE

EXAMPLES

SER (to be - individual level)

SR

Infinitive (in verbal and nominal contexts)

a ser/SR exemplo de emendas

SR-F

Inflected Infinitive (with explicit morphological marks)

para sermos/SR-F completos e felices

SR-I

Imperative (with explicit morphological marks)

Sê/SR-I fiel a Deus, e ele sempre te amará. 

SR-P

Present 

não é/SR-P muito que assim me acôlha...

SR-SP

Present Subjunctive

que êles sejam/SR-SP tão teimosos...

seja/SR-SP Deus louvado...

SR-D

Past 

Fatalidade foi/SR-D faltar-vos carta minha ...

Boa maré era/SR-D esta ...

SR-RA

Verbal forms with the inflectional morpheme 
-ra

Past Perfect
Ele fôra/SR-RA embora,...

Conditional

Hypothetical
Se fôra/SR-RA Deus, como vós sois,...

SR-SD

Past Subjunctive

...que fosse/SR-SD contra a minha regra...

SR-R

Future and Conditional

esta lembrança será/SR-R, mais que necessidade, imprudência ... 

seria/SR-R possível que ...

SR-SR

Future Subjunctive

mais ditoso que Quando fordes/SR-SR rei

SR-G

Gerund

sendo/SR-G tão má cousa como sou

SR-PP

Perfect Participle

como haver sido/SR-PP tão má

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TYPE

TAG

VALUE

EXAMPLES

HAVER
(there to be)

HV

Infinitive (in verbal and nominal contexts)

em tudo isto pode haver/HV vaidade

HV-F

Inflected Infinitive (with explicit morphological marks)

quão lastimosa cousa será haverem/HV-F de deixar aquelas almas

HV-I

Imperative (with explicit morphological marks)

Havei/HV-I vós....

HV-P

Present

em toda parte há/HV-P sido servido fazer-me

HV-SP

Present Subjunctive

...fingir que tem reparado em que eu haja/HV-SP faltado assim.

HV-D

Past

...o amor que vos tem, havia/HV-D de furtar-lho.

HV-RA

Verbal forms with the inflectional morpheme 
-ra

Past Perfect 

Conditional 

Hypothetical 
(...), como se houvera/HV-RA trabalhado.

HV-SD

Past Subjunctive

Não cuidei que houvesse/HV-SD tão pouco coração.

HV-R

Future and Conditional

...o que haverá/HV-R em contrário.

Haveria problemas, caso.....

HV-SR

Future Subjuctive

Se me houver/HV-SR perdoado as culpas...

HV-G

Gerund

Havendo/HV-G provimentos, só os envie se...

HV-PP

Perfect Participle

...tem havido/HV-PP nesse convento.

HV-NA

Passive Participle (see agreement and participles as adjectives)

As casas havidas/HV-AN-F-P

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TYPE

TAG

VALUE

EXAMPLES

ESTAR
(to be - stage level)

ET

Infinitive (in verbal and nominal contexts)

é estar/ET nas mãos de meu Senhor Jesu Cristo,...

ET-F

Inflected Infinitive (with explicit morphological marks)

Assim, para estarmos/ET-F com Nosso Senhor,... 

ET-I

Imperative (with explicit morphological marks)

Estai/ET-I agora junto ao amor de...

ET-P

Present

que estão/ET-P no côro.

ET-SP

Present Subjunctive

não esteja/ET-SP como eu cuidava.

ET-D

Past

que já estavam/ET-D de espera...

ET-RA

Verbal forms with the inflectional morpheme 
-ra

Past Perfect
Bem aviado estivera/ET-RA eu...

Conditional

Hypothetical 
Se estivera/ET-RA

ET-SD

Past Subjunctive

Espero em Deus que nunca estivesse/ET-SD azedo...

ET-R

Future and Conditional 

que cêdo estará/ET-R em Deus...

que cêdo estaria/ET-R.....

ET-SR

Future Subjuctive

Quando estiveres/ET-SR melhor....

ET-G

Gerund

Estando/ET-G inocente...

ET-PP

Perfect Participle

Tinha estado/ET-PP em Mafra..

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TYPE

TAG

VALUE

EXAMPLES

TER
(to have)

TR

Infinitive (in verbal and nominal contexts)

a ter/TR conta o que se passara..

TR-F

Inflected Infinitive (with explicit morphological marks)

de terem/TR-F as noviças...

TR-I

Imperative (with explicit morphological marks)

Tende/TR-I esperança...

TR-P

Present

Tenho/TR-P a Madre de Deus por mim...

TR-SP

Present Subjunctive

Não tenhais/TR-SP cuidado...

TR-D

Past

Que teve/TR-D seu próprio filho... 

TR-RA

Verbal forms with the inflectional morpheme 
-ra

Past Perfect
Tivera/TR-RA bondade e simplicidade... 

Conditional

Hypothetical 
Se tivera/TR-RA eu....

TR-SD

Past Subjunctive

Se tivesse/TR-SD desejo...

TR-R

Future

Como o terá/TR-R para fazer um sermão

TR-SR

Future Subjunctive

Se Deus não me tiver/TR-SR muito...

TR-G

Gerund

Tendo/TR-G sido encontrado...

TR-PP

Perfect Participle

Tido/TR-PP paciência e afeto...

TR-NA

Passive Participle (see agreement and participles as adjectives)

Tidas/TR-AN-F-P as cartas...

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TYPETAGVALUE

EXAMPLES

   

VERBS in general

VB

Infinitive (in verbal and nominal contexts)

...e bastará ao menos dar/VB três vezes Ordens no ano, ...

...é a que retrata com mais semelhança o falar/VB e conversação dentre os amigos 

O amar/VB a Deus (see infinitives as nouns)

VB-F

Inflected Infinitive (with explicit morphological marks)

Segue-se agora tratarmos/VB-F de como uma pessoa se alongará...

VB-I

Imperative (with explicit morphological marks)

Sabei/VB-I que agora estais no Cabo da Bôa Esperança...

VB-P

Present

Bem me parece/VB-P isto, porque...

Creio/VB-P em Jesu Cristo,...

VB-SP

Present Subjunctive

..., até que nos vejamos/VB-SP

VB-D

Past

Só vos digo que estimei/VB-D as vossas novas....

VB-RA

Verbal forms with the inflectional morpheme 
-ra

Past Perfect
Bem quisera/VB-RA eu prestar para vo-lo agradecer,...

Conditional
E se mais mundo houvera, lá chegara/VB-RA

Hypothetical 
Se ninguém no mundo se salvara/VB-RA, então (...)

VB-SD

Past Subjunctive

Se quisesse/VB-SD meu Deus que.....

VB-R

Future

...de quem não verei/VB-R por muitos anos

VB-SR

Future Subjunctive

Quando eu puder/VB-SR lhe darei algum....

VB-G

Gerund

Sabendo/VB-G que...

VB-PP

Perfect Participle

Terá feito/VB-PP os trabalhos...

VB-AN

Passive Participle (see agreement and adjective as participles)

Foi servido/VB-AN de reduzir ao seu rebanho esta ovelha perdida ....

Aparecera Cristo crucificado/VB-AN

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AGREEMENT - Gender and Number in nominal

The following inflectional tags for gender and number are contemplated in our annotation system in order to capture the morphological richness Portuguese exhibits in determiners, pronouns, nouns, adjectives, quantifiers, passive participles, and so on.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE

APPLICATION 

EXAMPLES

GENDER

none

Masculine

Default

que o/D dia/N

-F

Feminine

Determiners

que a/D-F noite

Adjectives

a noite fermosa/ADJ-F

Possessive Pronouns

de sua/PRO$-F fermosura

Quantifiers

de toda/Q-F a alma

Passive Participles

a ser feita/VB-AN-F

Relative Pronoun 'cuja'

de cuja/WPRO$-F virtude

Cardinal Number 'duas'

de duas/NUM-F fragatas

-G

Double gender

Determiner 'tal'

Tal/D-G saída não nos perturbara.

Adjectives

da grande/ADJ-G revolta de...

Quantifiers

de cada/Q-G homem...

NUMBER

None

Singular

Default

que o/D dia/N

-P

Plural

Nouns

as terras/N-P...

Determiners

Os/D-P mares e as/D-F-P terras....

Adjectives

Dois fermosos/ADJ-P frutos...

Duas fermosas/ADJ-F-P frutas..

Possessive Pronouns

Seus/PRO$-P favores e....

Quantifiers

Muitos/Q-P louvores...

Passive Participles

Foram encontrados/VB-AN-P mulheres e crianças....

Some Relative Pronouns

As correntes cujos/WPRO$-P elos....

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NOUNS

Common and proper nouns have been attributed the POS tags N and NPR respectively, since they behave differently from a syntactic point of view. As for the inflectional features related to nouns, Portuguese exhibits visible morphology concerning gender and number. Nevertheless, common and proper nouns have only been attributed number inflectional tags. Since the syntactic context is irrelevant for gender attribution to nouns, we decided not to contemplate this part of speech class with a gender inflectional tag, differently from what happens to determiners and adjectives. This idiosyncratic noun property is clearly shown in a list to be established of all the nouns contained in the corpus. This list will compose a dictionary and serve as reference for the automated morphological tagger.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE

APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

NOUNS

N

Singular

Common nouns

A gente/N de Lisboa 

Concordo com este parecer/N

Este criado/N de Vossa Senhoria

contraria ao bem/N commum

Others

O contrário/N é verdadeiro

Sobre este particular/N, penso que

Collective nouns

A multidão/N 

Infinitive forms largelly recognised as nouns

O jantar/N fôra agradabilíssimo

versus

Jantar/VB com amigos é algo como...

N-P 

Plural 

Common nouns

Mares/N-P e espumas/N-P

Jornais/N-P, meu caro amigo...

PROPER NOUNS

NPR

Singular

Common nouns with initial capital letter

(except after a period punctuation – see above)

... leva na maõ direita o Ceptro/NPR , com que ha de governar o Povo/NPR em Paz/NPR .

All Address Forms, even those with non initial capital letter

Não diga Vossa/PRO$-F Senhoria/NPR.....

Por isso, dê a senhora/NPR graças a Nosso Senhor, pois...

Titles

and

Epithets

Ilustríssimo/ADJ-S Senhor/NPR Gonçalves/NPR de/P Azevedo/NPR

Reverendíssima/ADJ-S-F Madre/NPR

Padre/NPR Provincial/ADJ-G 
and
O Provincial/ADJ-G informa que...

Espírito/NPR Santo/ADJ

Frei/NPR António/NPR

Dom/NPR Frederico/NPR

Ao ver El-Rei/NPR ao longe....

Por Monsieur/NPR Estrada/NPR

o Rey/NPR Catholico/NPR

Dates, days of week, months, and holidays 

Sábado/NPR e domingo/NPR

Dezembro/NPR e março/NPR

Dia/NPR de São/NPR João/NPR

O dia/N de Natal/NPR

Sexta/NPR Feira/NPR da Paixão/NPR

A Paixão/NPR de Cristo/NPR

Places

O/D Amazonas/NPR

Portugal/NPR

Rio/NPR de/P Janeiro/NPR

a rua/N Nova/NPR

Other Proper Nouns

São/NPR Bertolameu/NPR

João/NPR Alves/NPR 

NPR-P

Plural

Address Forms

Suas/PRO$-F-P Majestades/NPR-P e Altezas/NPR-P

Titles

As Condessas/NPR-P de Braga

Other Proper Nouns

Os/D-P Mendonças/NPR-P

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PRONOUNS

Taking into consideration syntactic differences among strong and deficient pronouns commonly found in null subject languages, like European Portuguese and some other Romance languages, different primary tags were attributed to each of the lexical items of this binary division. Tag PRO was attributed to strong pronouns in subject or object positions. Regarding the clitics, two tags were proposed: SE for clitic se in any of its use; and for all of the remaining clitics, the tag CL. Clitic se receives a particular tag on the basis of its peculiar behavior concerning not only the fact of performing various syntactic functions (reflexive, passivizing and indetermining particles), and showing idiosyncratic morphological behavior, but above all because it proves to be, as has been largely noted in the literature, a topic on its own of great synchronic and diachronic interest. It is also worth pointing out that in what concerns the clitics, mesoclisis, which is largely productive in the history of Portuguese, was attributed the diacritic signal !. This POS class deserved a third and final tag, PRO$, which was attributed to possessive pronouns.

As described before, nominative and oblique pronouns are codified  as PRO only, with no extra information about its number, or person. This seems problematic, since, as the especialized literature pointed out,  third person pronouns, on one hand, and first and second persons, on the other, use to present a very different syntactic behavior. Thus, as soon as possible, this problem will be fixed, and extensions -1S, i.e. first person singular, -1P, i.e. first person plural, and so on, will be automatically added to the primary tags PRO.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

PRONOUNS

PRO

Personal pronouns

Eu/PRO, tu/PRO, ele/PRO, ela/PRO, você/PRO, nós/PRO, vós/PRO, eles/PRO, elas/PRO, vocês/PRO

Oblique forms

Mim/PRO, ti/PRO, si/PRO

P+PRO

Preposition +oblique forms

Comigo/P+PRO, Contigo/ P+PRO, Consigo/P+PRO, Conosco/P+PRO, Convosco/P+PRO

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

PRO$

Masculine singular 

Meu/PRO$, teu/PRO$, seu/PRO$, nosso/PRO$, vosso/PRO$

PRO$-F

Feminine singular

Minha/PRO$-F, tua/PRO$-F, sua/PRO$-F, nossa/PRO$-F, vossa/PRO$-F

PRO$-P

Masculine plural

Meus/PRO$-P etc...

PRO$-F-P

Feminine plural

Minhas/PRO$-F-P etc...

CLITICS

CL

Clitics in general

me, te, o(s), a(s), lhe(s), nos, vos

Já o/CL havia dado a mi....

Quando lhe/CL visse....

Dar-te-ei/VB-R!CL

Entregou-me/VB-D+CL antes de...

SE

Clitic se

Sem se/SE preocupar com nada que...

E renderam-se/VB-D+SE.....

CL+CL

Clitics contraction in general

e não ma/CL+CL deu

SE+CL

Se + dative clitic lhe 

Quebrando-se-lhe/VB-G+SE+CL o coração, o ânimo e a confiança

 

VERB-CLITIC COMBINATIONS

Clitics can combine with all verb forms except participles and passives. An exhaustive list of combination possibilities is presented in the complete list of tags ; some examples are shown below:

TYPE

TAG

EXAMPLES

verb+one clitic

...+CL

haverem-nos/HV-F+CL, terem-na/TR-F+CL, mostrou-o/VB-D+CL, tergiversandolhe/VB-G+CL,

verb+two clitics

...+CL+CL

permittindo-lho/VB-G+CL+CL, quadruplicandolho/VB-G+CL+CL

verb+clitic se

...+SE

havendo-se/HV-G+SE, ha-se/HV-P+SE, arme-se/VB-SP+SE, guardase/VB-P+SE

verb+clitic se +clitic

...+SE+CL

devemse-lhes/VB-P+SE+CL, contem-selhe/VB-SP+SE+CL, offerecendose-lhe/VB-G+SE+CL

 

mesoclisis

Analitic future forms há de, hey de etc. turn into the synthetic –rá, rão, etc. future forms (tagged with /VB-R). Clitics can appear inserted into the these forms, and are marked as follows:

TAG

EXAMPLES

SR-R!CL

SR-R!SE

ser-lhe-há/ SR-R!CL

ser-se-ia/SR-R!SE

ET-R!CL

ET-R!SE

estar-me-iam/ ET-R!CL

estar-se-ão/ ET-R!SE

HV-R!CL

HV-R!SE

haver-te-ei/ HV-R!CL

haver-se-iam/ HV-R!SE

TR-R!CL

TR-R!SE

ter-lhe-ia/ TR-R!CL

ter-se-há/ TR-R!SE

VB-R!CL

VB-R!SE

amar-te-ei/ VB-R!CL

amar-se-há/ VB-R!SE

 

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DETERMINERS

Tag D was applied not only to the elements traditionally classified as definite articles but also to the inflected demonstratives, all of which also receive tags for number and gender. This is due to the fact that, as can be seen in the history of Portuguese, articles and inflected demonstratives share the same syntactic distribution. On the other hand, since uninflected demonstratives show actual pronominal behavior (not a determiner one), the tag DEM was reserved to them. Additionally, some other elements receive tag D, followed by the inflectional tag G, which is assigned to the words which have no distinction form for masculine and feminine. Concerning the case of um(a), we opted to attribute it tag D, associated to the inflectional tag -UM, so that its automatic identification with the other members of the determiners class would be facilitated. The associated inflectional tag -UM has the advantage of differentiating this element from the other articles, which is desirable due to its property of being either [+referential] or [+quantified].

The set outro, outros, etc. is now treated in a new form – please refer to outro
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/
APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

DEFINITE DETERMINERS AND INFLECTED DEMONSTRATIVES

D

Masculine singular

O/D homem 
Este/D homem 
Aquele/D homem

e o mandou para este/D.

D-F

Feminine singular

A/D-F videira (see 'a' as preposition)
Esta/D-F videira
Aquela/D-F videira

D-P

Masculine plural

Os/D-P homens 
Estes/D-P homens 
Aqueles/D-P homens

D-F-P

Feminine plural

As/D-F-P videiras
Estas/D-F-P videiras
Aquelas/D-F-P videiras

D-G

Double gender singular

Tal/D-G homem 

porque em tal/D-G parte vale muito

Tal/D-G videira

(sse 'tal' as other demonstratives, as comparative adjective, and comparative adverb)

D-G-P

Double gender plural

Tais/D-G-P homens
Tais/D-G-P videiras

INDEFINITE DETERMINERS/

CARDINAL NUMBER 'UM'

D-UM

Masculine singular

Um/D-UM homem

Um/D-UM quilo de forragem

D-UM-F

Feminine singular

Uma/D-UM-F flor

Uma/D-UM-F dúzia de ovos...

D-UM-P

Masculine plural

Uns/D-UM-P homens

Uns/D-UM-P quilos de forragem

Acabava por não saber como agradá-los: a uns/D-UM-P oferecia amor, a outros dedicação.....

D-UM-F-P

Feminine plural

Umas/D-UM-F-P flores

Umas/D-UM-F-P dúzias

OTHER DEMONSTRATIVES

DEM

Invariable demonstratives

Por isso/DEM a razão derrubou os ídolos...

Sobre aquilo/DEM do convento, cêdo nos veremos e então falaremos.

'tal'

Apenas por tal/DEM faria a guerra (see 'tal' as comparative adjetives)

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ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, AND QUANTIFIERS

The lexical items that, from an interpretive point of view, quantify over entities or events receive tag Q, which can be associated with gender or number inflectional tags. In Modern Portuguese, the quantificational property applied to entities can be neutralized depending on the position of the item that expresses it in the nominal phrase. What follows is that items that are generally classified as quantifiers in pre-nominal position, can be interpreted as adjectives when in post-nominal position. In this present annotated system, developed to be applied to Classic andModern Portuguese, this distinction is not considered. Thus, quantified items are always tagged as Q. With respect to adjectives properly, besides gender and number inflectional tags that might apply to them, one can also identify the exclamative, comparative and superlative adjective forms, using tags R and S, respectively. Finally, as far as adverbs are concerned, the so-called intensity adverbs (muito, pouco, and so on) have been classified as event quantifiers in the presently proposed system, in parallel with the entity quantifiers. The tag ADV, therefore, has only been used to codify time, place and manner adverbs as well as the forms mais and menos. The variation tags R and S apply to adverbs in the same way as to adjectives.
 

The set outro, outros, etc. is no longer tagged as ADJ – please refer to outro

ADJECTIVES
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE

APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

ADJECTIVES

ADJ

Masculine singular

General adjectives

Por ser bonito/ADJ

Um e meio/ADJ por cento

Ano e meio/ADJ

Meio/ADJ por cento

'mesmo' as adjective

O mesmo/ADJ homem foi encontrado...

O mesmo/ADJ se pode dizer... 

(see 'mesmo' as as focus particle, and as member of complex subordinating conjuction)

Ordinal numbers (see cardinal numbers

O segundo/ADJ homem que partiu

ADJ-F

Feminine singular

Uma fermosa/ADJ-F igreja ...

ADJ-G

Double-gender singular

General adjectives

 

 

Others

 

 

 

 

Um homen grande/ADJ-G e uma mulher amável/ADJ-G

 

 

 

Por conseguinte/ADJ-G, ....
(see adverbs as prepositional phrases)

não/NEG obstante/ADJ-G (see clusters)

 

 

ADJ-P

Masculine plural

Homens bonitos/ADJ-P

ADJ-F-P

Feminine plural

Mulheres bonitas/ADJ-F-P

ADJ-G-P

Double-gender plural

General adjetives

Homens e mulheres valentes/ADJ-G-P

'demais' 

Os demais/ADJ-G-P homens saíram.

As demais/ADJ-G-P foram entregues... 

EXCLAMATIVE/COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES 

ADJ-R

Masculine singular ('tanto') 

E aplicou tanto/ADJ-R esforço que/C impediu o levantar da barreira, onde.... 

ADJ-R-F

Feminine singular ('tanta')

A vontade foi tanta/ADJ-R-F que/C acabou por .....

ADJ-R-P

Masculine plural ('tantos')

...do coração que há tantos/ADJ-R-P tempos vive oculto nos mistérios do recato.

E aplicou tantos/ADJ-R-P esforços que/C impediu o levantar da barreira, onde....

ADJ-R-F-P

Feminine plural ('tantas')

..., pois êle foi servido de reduzir ao seu rebanho esta ovelha perdida, quási no mesmo tempo que entre as trevas do pecado e entre os horrores de tantas/ADJ-R-F-P culpas se aumentavam os descaminhos e creciam os despenhadeiros.

ADJ-R-G

'tal'

Muito estimara eu que fôsse tal/ADJ-R-G o meu desembaraço, que/C pudesse escrever a Vossa Mercê mais a miúdo.

Fez um tal/ADJ-R-G esforço que/C não pode....

'maior'/'menor'

Este é o maior/ADJ-R-G bem de todos...

o grande amor que vos tem é maior/ADJ-R-G do/P+D que/WPRO cuidais.

'melhor'/'pior'

desejando de empregar em melhor/ADJ-R-G guerra o que me ficava de vida.

E isto acabou por ser melhor/ADJ-R-G do/P+D que/WPRO descansar,....

uma forma melhor/ADJ-R-G que/C esta 

Este é o pior/ADJ-R-G ....

O melhor/ADJ-R-G a fazer é isto.....

ADJ-R-G-P

'tais'

Esses tais/ADJ-R-G-P fatos acabaram por trazer....

'maiores'/menores'

...projetos maiores/ADJ-R-G-P que/C aqueles....

'melhores'/'piores'

...melhores/ADJ-R-G-P casas que/C essas

SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES 

ADJ-S

Masculine singular

Homem amabilíssimo/ADJ-S

ADJ-S-F

Feminine singular

Mulher belíssima/ADJ-S-F

ADJ-S-P

Masculine plural

Barcos rapidíssimos/ADJ-S-P

ADJ-S-F-P

Feminine plural

Fragatas imponentíssimas/ADJ-S-F-P

ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS

N

General adjectives

Um pecador/N miserável 
versus
Um homem bom ou mau, justo ou pecador/ADJ....

ADJECTIVES AS ADVERBS

ADV

 

 

Fragata rápida/ADJ-F
versus
Rápida/ADV e sorateiramente/ADV

Homem baixo/ADJ
versus
Falando baixo/ADV, (....)

PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES 

VB-AN

 

 

Esta ovelha perdida/VB-AN-F

Bemdito/VB-AN e louvado/VB-AN seja Deus Nosso Senhor

 

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ADVERBS
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE

APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

ADVERBS

ADV

Adverbs of manner

Completamente/ADV
Rapidamente/ADV
Infelizmente/ADV
Deveras/ADV, Depressa/ADV

Adverbs of place

Acima/ADV, abaixo/ADV, por/P baixo/ADV, em/P cima/ADV, debaixo/ADV, diante/ADV, adiante/ADV, cá/ADV, lá/ADV, aqui/ADV, ali/ADV, aquém/ADV, além/ADV, atrás/ADV, dentro/ADV, fora/ADV (see fora as preposition), 

Adverbs of time

Agora/ADV, ontem/ADV, hoje/ADV, amanhã/ADV, cedo/ADV, tarde/ADV, jamais/ADV, logo/ADV, antes/ADV, primeiro (=antes)

Antes/ADV d'hontem/P+ADV fui informado.....(see 'antes' as 'comparative adverb' and more P+ADV)

Primeiro/ADV que/C os vossos achaques me viessem (...) 

Others 
'acaso' as 'casualmente'

...que quase/ADV interrompemos nós....

EXCAMATIVE/
COMPARATIVE ADVERBS

ADV-R

'mais'/'menos'/ 
(in all syntactic contexts) 

'demais'/'bastante'

por mais/ADV-R força que/C aplicassem, não resolviam...

por mais/ADV-R que/C aplicassem força,....

O mais/ADV-R são detalhes que...

que representam no que avultam mais/ADV-R do que/WPRO custam no que oprimem.

Nada procuro mais/ADV-R que/C o amor de Cristo.

Por mais/ADV-R que/C eu queira, (...)

Pelo menos/ADV-R, isto foi feito.

Ao menos/ADV-R isso (...) 

(...) assim nisto como no demais/ADV-R (...)

'melhor'/'pior'

....e correu melhor/ADV-R do que eu 

'tão'/'tanto'/'tal'

 

 

 

E fico tão/ADV-R consolado com os favores do Céu, que/C os maiores Impérios da terra regeitara eu.

Só sinto ser-lhe tão/ADV-R ingrato e tão pobrezinho para pagar-lhe, que/C nem um suspiro tenho de meu para oferecer-lhe;

Quanto mais quer, tanto/ADV-R mais faz para obter

Tanto/ADV-R ricos, quanto/WADV pobres...

tal/ADV-R qual/WADV sou

'antes'

Antes/ADV-R tarde do que/WPRO nunca

SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS

ADV-S

 

Lentíssimamente

ADVERBS AS PREPOSITIONAL OR ADVERBIAL PHRASES

.../P .../N

.../P .../ADJ

.../P.../ADV

.../ADV.../P

 

Com/P certeza/N, , sem/D dúvida/N, por/P acaso/N

Por/P conseguinte/ADJ, de/P certo/ADJ ,

Até/P amanhã/ADV, até/P logo/ADV, no/P+D entanto/ADV (see clusters)

acerca/ADV de/P (see clusters)

ADVERBS AS EVENT QUANTIFIERS

Q

'muito'/'pouco'

Frei António trabalhou muito/Q durante ...

NEGATIVE ADVERBS

ADV-NEG

‘nunca’

see negation

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QUANTIFIERS
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

QUANTIFIERS

Q

Quantifiers in general

Tudo/Q será feito.

Alguém/Q disse que...

Outrém/Q 

Vossa Mercê sofrerá muito/Q. 

muito/Q trabalho a fazer...

pouco/Q trabalho a fazer... 

Um pouco/Q de trabalho a fazer

Algum/Q motivo apresenta... 

Q-F

por alguma/Q-F razão...

Q-P

ambos/Q-P os freis...

todos/Q-P os homens...

alguns/Q-P trabalhos....

Q-F-P

ambas/Q-F-P as religiosas...

todas/Q-F-P as coisas...

algumas/Q-F-P guerras....

Q-G

Cada/Q-G um saberá...

Qualquer/Q-G solução virá....

Q-G-P

Quaiquer/Q-G-P resoluções...

NEGATIVE QUANTIFIERS

Q-NEG

 

Q-NEG-P, Q-NEG-F, Q-NEG-F-P

‘nada’, ‘ninguém’, ‘nenhum’

 

‘nenhuns’; ‘nenhuma’; ‘nenhumas’

 

 

 

se devem vigiar mais, que nenhumas/Q-NEG-F-P outras

see negation

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CONJUNCTIONS

Besides a tag for coordinating conjunctions (CONJ), our system present a special tag for complementizers (C) as well as a tag for subordinating conjunctions (CONJS) . Notice that CONJ tag is applied not only to e (and) and mas (but), but also porém, entretanto, todavia (however, nevertheless, etc). Due to the lack of systematic research about the connectives porém, entretanto, todavia or others in Portuguese, we initially went for the traditional classification, according to which all the above mentioned connectives are equally called coordinating conjunctions.
 
  The item que is no longer classifyed as a subordinate conjunction; please see que below.

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

CONJ

Aditive e

Frei Luís e/CONJ Frei João

Teria chegado e/CONJ saído sem ninguém perceber....

Adversatives

Mas

Porém

Contudo

Entretanto

Todavia

Alternatives

Ou........., ou.......

Ora........, ora.......

Nem......., nem.....

Conclusives

Logo

Pois

Portanto 

Explicatives

Fica calma, porque/CONJ isto é o melhor a fazer. (see 'porque' as subordinating conjuction)

Pois

Fica calma, que/CONJ isto é o melhor a fazer. (see 'que' as complementizer)

CONJ-NEG

Aditive nem

Não fez o pedido, nem/CONJ-NEG sabia dizer quem o fizera....

 

(see negation)

Complementizer

C

'que'

Para dizer a Vossa Mercê que/C esta vida/N entra a ser exemplo de emendas...

Espero que/C Deus me guie....

Foi ontem que/C encontrei as...

Assim/ADV que/C ,/, do dinheiro que Vossa Excelência me remeteu não posso já fazer cousa alguma, por estarem as letras nas mãos de quem vendeu a fragata. 

(see 'que' as part of complex subordinating conjunctions)

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

CONJS

Causals, conditionals, finals, temporals, etc.

Quando/CONJS fores embora, ...

Embora/CONJS não saibas,....

Se/CONJS soubesses.... 

Exceto/P se/CONJS...

Caso/CONJS não saibas.....

Conforme/CONJS afirmam,...

Como/CONJS afirmam, .... 

Segundo/CONJS 

Porque/CONJS 

COMPLEX SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Various 

Adverbs/Prepositions/
Participles/Focus Particle + C

já/ADV que/C
para/P que/C
visto/VB-AN que/C
ainda/ADV que/C
depois/P que/C
mesmo/FP que/C
até/P que/C

 

QUE

Updates to the tagging system in August 2001 have included a simplification of the treatment of the item que. Previously, tags for que included C, CONJ, CONJS, WPRO, WD.

Mainly for computational reasons, the tag CONJS no longer applies; in such contexts in which it was used, C will now be used instead. All other tags remain unchanged.

ITEM

APPLICATION

OLD TAG

NEW TAG

QUE

degree clauses

E aplicou tantos/ADJ-R-P esforços que/CONJS impediu o levantar da barreira

Fez um tal/ADJ-R esforço que/CONJS não pode....

E fico tão/ADV-R consolado com os favores do Céu, que/CONJS os maiores Impérios da terra regeitara eu.

por mais/ADV-R força que/CONJS aplicassem, não resolviam...

Por mais/ADV-R que/CONJS eu queira, (...)

E aplicou tantos esforços que/C impediu o levantar da barreira

Fez um tal esforço que/C não pode....

E fico tão consolado com os favores do Céu, que/C os maiores Impérios da terra regeitara eu.

por mais força que/C aplicassem, não resolviam ...

Por mais que/C eu queira, (...)

comparative clauses

...projetos maiores que/CONJS aqueles....

...projetos maiores que/C aqueles....

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INTERROGATIVE/RELATIVE ELEMENTS

To relative elements, we apply tags WPRO or WPRO$. To interrogative elements, the following tags apply: WPRO, WADV and WQ for direct and indirect interrogatives, and WD for interrogative determiners.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/
APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

RELATIVE ELEMENTS

WPRO

 

O homem que/WPRO veio...

O modo pelo qual/WPRO...

WPRO-P

WPRO-F-P

 

As casas nas quais/WPRO-P....

tantos.....quantos/WPRO-P forem os interessados nas companhias

não me soube dizer Jerónimo Nunes quantas/WPRO-F-P eram

WPRO$

 

O homem cujo/WPRO$ caráter....

WPRO$-F

 

...a consciência, cuja/WPRO$-F glória é aquietar entre as espinhas.

WPRO$-P

 

O homem cujos/WPRO$-F modos...

WPRO$-F-P

 

...as consciências, cujas/WPRO$-F-P glórias é aquietar entre as espinhas.

WADV

 

O modo como/WADV vejo a Deus é tão sublime que.....

O deserto onde/WADV me encontrava, quando....

Quanto/WADV à compra dos navios, 

EXCLAMATIVE/
INTERROGATIVE ELEMENTS

WPRO

 

Por/P que/WPRO não me deste...?

O/D que/WPRO queres...?

WPRO-F

 quanta

 

WPRO-P

 quantos

 

WPRO-F-P

 quantas

....porque não me soube dizer Jerónimo Nunes quantas/WPRO-F-P eram....

WADV

 

E para saber isto como/WADV é, tende sentido...

Quão/WADV verdadeiro é o sentimento (...)

WQ

 

E perguntavas se/WQ não havias de se entregar.

EXCLAMATIVE/
INTERROGATIVE DETERMINERS

WD

WD

WD

Que processo

Quanto sofrimento

Qual processo

Qual/WD processo/N procuras?

Que/WD processo/N procuras?

Quanto/WD desamor/N encontrastes, quando.....?

WD

WD-F

WD-P 

Que processos

Quanta dúvida

Quantos/quais processos 

Que/WD processos/N-P...?

terá quanta/WD-F gente quizer

Quais/WD-P processos/N-P...?

Quantos/WD-P desamores/N-P encontrastes, quando...?

Os/D-P quais/WD-P livros/N-P....

WD-F-P

Quantas

Quantas/WD-F-P esperanças/N-P...!

OTHERS

WADV

 

Quanto/WADV a/P Vossa Mercê, peço a Deus que..... (see prepositions + WADV)

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PREPOSITIONS

Tag P is used to identify prepositions. In cases of lexical contraction, tags D or DEM can be associated to it.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/
APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

PREPOSITIONS

P

General prepositions:

a, de, com, em, para, até, sobre, desde, exceto, fora (=exceto), salvo, mediante, etc.

 

 

CONTRACTIONS

P+D

(P+D-P; P+D-F; P+D-F-P; P+D-UM; P+D-UM-P; P+D-UM-F; P+D-UM-F-P)

à(s), ao(s), no(s), na(s), do(s), da(s), desse(s), dessa(s), pelo(s), pela(s)

 

 

P+PRO

dele, dela, etc

P+OUTRO

(P+OUTRO-P; P+OUTRO-F; P+OUTRO-F-P)

d´outro (s), doutro(s), doutra, noutra, etc.

quando uma consoante se converte noutra/P+OUTRO-F

P+Q

(P+Q-P; P+Q-F; P+Q-F-P)

n’ algum, n’alguns, n’alguma, n’algumas

P+WPRO

porque

(in interrogatives)

¿ porque/P+WPRO o não fará ?

P+DEM

disso, disto, nisso, nisto

P+ADV

até'gora, antes d'hontem, etc.

P+WADV

donde, aonde, adonde

 

P+CL

pela, polo, etc.

trabalhei pela/P+CL servir

P+NPR

del rey

 

Remember that tag P is applied to many other contexts, as até/P amanhã/ADV and até/P logo/ADV (see adverbs as PP), até/P que/C (see complex subordinating conjunctios), acerca/ADV de/P and apesar/P de/P (see clusters)

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CLUSTERS: (previously treated as "WORDS AS UNIT")

 

Prepositional clusters apesar de and acerca de, as as well as conjunctional clusters no entanto and não obstante have had their taggs changed.

The history of languages in general reveals that these groups of words result, in general, of various grammaticalization processes. From the diachronic point of view, this means that their components migrate systematically from a class of words to another.

The decision of what tags to attribute to those items (separatelly or as a unit) must result from a compromise between linguistic precision and computational efficiency. A possible consequence of tagging them separately is the impossibility of automatic selection of these data from the corpus. In order to avoid that, and following the Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English, the first option in the Tycho Brahe Corpus was to codify those items as words-as-unit (apesar/P-21 de/P-22, acerca/P-21 de/P-22, no/CONJ-21 entanto/CONJ-22 and não/CONJ-21 obstante/CONJ-22). However, from the computational point of view, this kind of notation represents an idiosyncrasy, and has proven to cause significant noise to the system. Experience revealed, then, that in order to optimize the computational system, the prepositional and conjuncitonal clusters should no longer be tagged as ‘words as unit’.

From now on, these items will be individually tagged, as follows:

  

ITEM

OLD TAG

NEW TAG

apesar de

P-21 ... P-22

apesar/P-21 de/P-22

P ... P

apesar/P de/P

apesar/P do/P+D; apesar/P dos/P+D-P; apesar/P da/P+D-F; apesar/P das/P+D-F-P; apesar/P disso/P+DEM; apesar/P dele/P+PRO, etc.

acerca de

P-21 ... P-22

acerca/P-21 de/P-22

ADV ... P

acerca/ADV de/P

acerca/ADV do/P+D; acerca/ADV dos/P+D-P; acerca/ADV da/P+D-F, acerca/ADV das/P+D-F-P; acerca/ADV disso/P+DEM; acerca/ADV dele/P+PRO, etc.

no entanto

CONJ-21 CONJ-22

no/CONJ-21 entanto/CONJ-22

P+D ... ADV

no/P+D entanto/ADV

não obstante

CONJ-21 CONJ-22

não/CONJ-21 obstante/CONJ-22

NEG ... ADJ-G

não/NEG obstante/ADJ-G

 

(criteria to define the parts of speech were inspired in Dicionário Contemporâneo da Língua Portuguesa , F.J Caldas Aulete, 3a edição atualizada, Lisboa, 1948 (parceria António M. Pereira)

Note that 'já que', 'visto que', and so on are (still) treated as complex subordinating conjunctions, while the expression 'quanto a' is tagged as quanto/WADV a/P

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OUTRO

The set outro, outros, outra, outras receives now a new treatment, aiming at computational adequacy – but most of all, at facilitating search into the corpus.

Previously, a special tag /OUTRO was used to identify outro in anaphoric/reflexive use, as in Abraçaram-se uns aos outros (English: They held each other), and distinguish this from the adjectival use of the form, as in Viu o outro homem (English: he saw the other man), in which case the item was tagged /ADJ. This distinction was devised in order to reflect an important syntactic aspect and facilitate research; however, experience revealed that the distinction is sometimes too hard to make out. Apart from clear-cut cases like the above, the texts revealed a grey area in which the decision of which tag to apply became erratic. Inconsistencies in the application of either tag led to the decision that one of them had to be supressed. Splitting the tags only made sense, from the point of view of searching, if it could be trusted.

Because it is the more specific option, /OUTRO was chosen to be applied (with inflectional tags when necessary) to all occurrences of outro(s), outra(s) – in this way, when searching for the more specific use of these items, researchers will not have to go through the open set of words tagged /ADJ. Of course, many adjectival outros will be included in the results, but this is certainly less counter-productive.

This is how the tagging will work:

 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

OUTRO 

OUTRO

 Outro

 (in all contexts)

Foram ao encontro um do outro/OUTRO

O outro/OUTRO homem que partiu...

OUTRO-P

OUTRO-F

OUTRO-F-P

 Outros

Outra

Outras

 (in all contexts)

Acabava por não saber como agradá-los: a uns oferecia amor, a outros/OUTRO-P dedicação.....

Abraçaram-se uns aos outros/OUTRO-P

Uma e outra/OUTRO-F coisa se deve evitar

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FOCUS PARTICLES
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE

EXAMPLES

FOCUS PARTICLES

FP

'só', 'mesmo', 'até', and so on 

Só/FP os padres podem....
versus
Um só/ADJ livro foi enviado por....

Até/FP Sua Senhoria diria que...
versus
se pudesse ir até/P a presença de Sua Senhoria, ....

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CARDINAL NUMBERS

Ordinal numbers behave as adjectives and, therefore, are tagged ADJ. Thus tag NUM applies to cardinal numbers only. Remember that NUM is not applied to um/uma (one), since they are treated as determiners, and tagged as D-UM/D-UM-F.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/
APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

CARDINAL NUMBERS

NUM

General cardinal number expressed by digits or characters

Em 1538/NUM....

Três/NUM toneladas....

100/NUM quilos....

um/D-UM milhão/N e/CONJ dois/NUM mil/NUM florins/N-P

NUM-F

The form 'duas'/2

Duas/NUM-F centenas....

Por 20/NUM homens e 2/NUM-F fragatas.... 

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NEGATION

This is the complete, updated list of items that receive the NEG tag in the Corpus:

 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/
APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

NEGATIVE PARTICLES

NEG

'não'

Não/NEG se fará.......

dizem/VB-P um/D-UM não/NEG que/WPRO parece/VB-P sim/ADV

não/NEG obstante/ADJ (see clusters)

SENAO

'senão'

Não respira senão/SENAO morte.....

OTHER NEGATIVE ITEMS

CONJ-NEG

‘nem’

in all contexts

Não fez o pedido, nem/CONJ-NEG sabia dizer quem o fizera....

Nem/CONJ-NEG só de pão vive um ser...

ADV-NEG

‘nunca’

 

Q-NEG

‘nada’, ‘ninguém’, ‘nenhum’

 

Q-NEG-P, Q-NEG-F, Q-NEG-F-P

‘nenhuns’; ‘nenhuma’; ‘nenhumas’.

 

 

As pointed out by Anthony Kroch and Ana Maria Martins, the non-application of NEG tag to negative adverbs, as  nunca (e.g. never), negative quantifiers, as ninguem (e.g. nobody), and so on can cause searching problems, since it does not permit an automatic selecting of all negative structures on the corpus. A brief solution would be to add the NEG tag to the parsed files only, as in [1], forcing an NEG interpretation of the sentences, and then making the automatic searching of negative structures possible:
 

[1] (IP-MAT (CONJP (IP-MAT (Declamei/VB-D) (PP (contra/P) (DP (a/D-F) (NP     (vaidade/N))))) (,/,) (e/CONJ) ((IP-MAT-NEG (nunca/ADV) (pude/VB-D)     (resistir/VB) (PP (à/P+D-F-1) (DP (D *-1) (NP (vaidade/N) (ADJP     (inocente/ADJ-G)) (PP (de/P) (IP-INF (pôr/VB) (DP-OBJ (estes/D-P) (NP     (discursos/N-P))) (PP (aos/P+D-P-2) (DP (D *-2) (NP (ADJP (Reais/ADJ-G-P))     (pés/N-P) (PP (de/P) (DP (NP (Vossa/PRO$-F) (Majestade/NPR)))))))))))))


Notice, however, that the solution in [1] could not be enough to localize simple negative sentences, excluding sentences with negative agreement, or negative polarity items, or just find sentences with negative agreement, or negative polarity items only, without simple negative sentences. This is because a way to localize them in parsed files would be to automaticaly look for IPs that dominate a single NEG word (in order to localize simple negative sentences) or IPs that dominate more than one NEG word (in order to localize sentences with negative agreement).

Then, it seems that the best way to solve this problem was to change the present morphological annotation system, and add NEG to all the negative words (não/NEG, nem/NEG, nunca/ADV-NEG, ninguém/Q-NEG, etc.) present in the Tycho Brahe texts.

For computational reasons, the tag applied to senão is now typed with no diacritics, i.e. SENAO, and not SENÃO anymore.

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INTERJECTIONS

Tag INTJ applies to items that belong to the interjections class.
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

INTERJECTIONS

INTJ

General interjections

Oh/INTJ

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FOREING AND UNKNOWN WORDS
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/APPLICATION

EXAMPLES

FOREIGN WORDS

FW

General foreign words

repartindo-se/ pro/FW rata/FW

Pax/FW Christi/FW

UNKNOWN WORDS

XX

General unknown words

 

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PUNCTUATION
 
 

TYPE

TAG

VALUE/
APPLICATION

 EXAMPLES

FINAL PUCTUATION

.

Period or reticence

./.

Interrogative mark

?/.

Exclamation mark

!/.

Semi-comma 

;/.

Colon

:/.

NON-FINAL PUNCTUATION

Comma

,/,

QUOTATION

QT

Quotation mark

"/QT

PARENTHESES

(

Parentheses

(/(.................)/(

Dash

-/(

Also for computational reasons, QT tag is now the tag applied to double quotation mark. 

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SOME HOMOGRAPHIC LEXICAL ITEMS AND THEIR TAGS: REVIEW

The following table, displayed in alphabetic order, presents some of the homographic words commented above and their respective tags.
 
 Note that the item que has lost one of its formerly possoble tags: /CONJS no longer applyes (see que)

LEXICAL ITEM

TAGS

EXAMPLES

ATÉ

/P 

/FP

meter a maõ até/P o cotovello pelo alheo

até/FP nas arvores há ladroens

COMO

/CONJS

/WADV

 

MELHOR/PIOR

/ADJ-R-G (with inflectional tag -P, when necessary)

/ADV-R (always with no inflectional tags)

 

MESMO

/ADJ (with inflexional tags (-F or -P), when necessary)

/FP (always with no inflectional tags)

 

PORQUE

/CONJ,

/CONJS,

/WADV

/P+WPRO

 

QUE

/C,

/CONJ,

/WPRO

 

TAL

/D-G (with inflexional tag -P, when necessary)

/DEM (always with no inflectional tags)

/ADJ-R-G (with inflexional tag -P, when necessary)

/ADV-R (always with no inflectional tags)

seus primos, filhos do tal/D-G tio

quem tal/DEM fez, que naõ faria ?

de tal/ADJ-R-G qualidade , que naõ he possível referillas todas

e mostra-se , que tal/ADV-R deve ser a paz

TANTO

/ADJ-R (with inflectional tags (-F or -P), when necessary)
/ADV-R (always with no inflectional tags)

 

 

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ITEMS WITH FIXED TAGS: REVIEW

The following table displays those items that receive fixed tags – i.e., in all ocurrences, in any context (in alphabetical order):

LEXICAL ITEM

TAG

MAIS/MENOS

ADV-R

NADA

Q-NEG

NÃO

NEG

NEM

CONJ-NEG

NINGUÉM

Q-NEG

NENHUM

nenhuns nenhuma nenhumas

Q-NEG

(with inflectional tags –P and/or F, when necessary)

NUNCA

ADV-NEG

OUTRO

outros outra outras

OUTRO

(with inflectional tags –P and/or F, when necessary)

TÃO 

ADV-R

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COMPLETE LIST OF TAGS
 

Click here for a list of all tags used in the Tycho Brahe Corpus, in alphabetical order.

 

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If you have any doubts or suggestions, please contact galvesc@ime.usp.br


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These pages were created by Helena Britto
and updated by Maria Clara Paixão de Sousa

Last modification: August 27th  2001